Machining is a type of subtractive manufacturing process that is used to remove material from a workpiece using cutting tools in a controlled manner to manufacture finished parts. A workpiece can be in metal, plastic, wood, or ceramic material.
Different types of machining operations are used to remove material from the workpiece in different ways. CNC Machines are used to machine workpiece more accurately with minimum operator intervention.
Types of Machining Operations
- Traditional Machining Operations
- Non-Traditional Machining Operations
- Electro Chemical Machining
- Wire Cutting
- Electric Discharge Machines
- Electrochemical Grinding
- Laser Cutting
- Water Jet Machining
- Abrasive Jet Machining
Traditional Machining Operations
Turning is a type of machining operation that is used to remove material from the outer diameter of a cylindrical workpiece. During turning operation, the workpiece is held in a chuck rotating at high speed and a single-point cutting tool is attached to the machine and moved in X and Y directions to cut the material in the required shape. Turning or lathe machines are used for turning operations.
Following machining operations can be done on turning or lathe machine.
In milling operation, a rotating mill cutter is used to cut the material from the workpiece. Compared to turning, during milling operation, the workpiece remains stationary and the cutting tool rotates and moves in X, Y, and Z direction to cut the workpiece. Following two types of milling machines are available in the market:
- Horizontal Cutting Milling Machine: In this, the mill cutter is mounted horizontally.
- Vertical Milling Machine: In this, the mill cutter is mounted vertically.
Grinding is a type of abrasive machining process that utilizes a grinding tool to remove small amounts of material (0.00635 to 0.0254 mm). Manual and controlled grinding machines are available in the market. Lapping and sanding are types of grinding operations.
Drilling is a metal cutting operation by rotating and pressing a multi-point cutting tool to cut a circular straight hole in solid materials. A Multi-point cutting tool is known as a drilling bit. Standard drill bits in various sizes are available in the market. To drill a hole, the drill bit is rotated at a very high rpm. Following operations are feasible on a drilling machine.
- Spot Facing
Shaping Process in Machining
Shaping is a type of machining operation that is used to remove material from flat surfaces using a shaping machine. During shaping operation, the workpiece remains stationary and the cutting tool reciprocates to remove the material. A shaper machine can be a horizontal or vertical axis shaper machine.
Planing Machining Process
Planing is a type of machining operation that is used to remove material from flat surfaces and cutting slots. During this process cutting tool is kept stationary and the workpiece reciprocates in its position.
The planing process is similar to shaping operation. The only difference is during shaping operation cutting tool moves and the workpiece remains stationary whereas in planing operation, the cutting tool remains stationary and the workpiece moves.
The broaching operation is a type of machining operation that utilizes a broach tool to cut the workpiece. To cut the part, a broach tool is pushed or pulled in the workpiece using a broaching machine.
A broach tool is a cutting tool having a series of cutting tools. Broaching is used to achieve high dimensional accuracy and a good surface finish.