Various types of Welding techniques are used to join metal and thermoplastic parts. Highly skilled workforce is required to perform welding operations. But nowadays robots are replacing skilled welding operators for repeated welding tasks.
Welding robots can also be used to automate the welding operation and improve weld quality. This article covers various different types of welding techniques, their advantages and limitations. Click this link to know the benefits of implementing automation in manufacturing.
Welding process has evolved from years. Nowadays it’s so advanced that even underwater welding is also possible. Following types of welding techniques are widely used in the manufacturing industry. Each of these welding techniques has their own advantages, limitations and applications.
- Arc Welding
- Gas Welding
- Resistance Welding
- Solid State Welding
- Energy Beam Welding (EBW)
- Laser Welding
Arc welding melts and fuse the metal parts by generating an arc between the consumable and non-consumable electrode and the base metal to be joined. Electric arc between base material and electrode is generated by using AC or DC current.
Types of Arc welding Techniques
Following types of Arc welding techniques are widely used in the manufacturing industry.
- Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG)
- Metal inert Gas Welding (MIG)
- Metal Active Gas welding (MAG)
- Carbon Arc Welding
- Metal Arc Welding
- Plasma Arc Welding
Advantages of Arc Welding
Arc welding process has the following advantages compared to other welding processes.
- High strength weld.
- High weld speed.
- Low welding equipment and process cost.
- Automation with robotic arms is possible.
- High corrosion resistance depending on type of welding used.
Limitations of Arc Welding
Despite having so many advantages, the arc welding process has following limitations.
- Low efficiency.
- Highly skilled workforce are required.
- Difficult to weld thin materials.
Gas welding utilizes flames to melt and fuse the base material together. It is one of the oldest forms of welding and extensively used because of easy to use and low cost.
Type of Gas welding
Gas welding can be classified in the following types.
- Oxy-Acetylene Gas Welding
- Oxy-Hydrogen Gas Welding
- Air-Acetylene Gas Welding
Advantages of Gas Welding
Gas welding process has following advantages compared to other welding techniques.
- Low equipment cost.
- Portable equipment.
- Low Welding Cost.
- Highly skilled welders are not required.
Limitations of Gas Welding
Gas welding has the following limitations:
- Low weld quality.
- Generally used for repair work.
- Not suitable for thick sections.
Resistance Welding involves jointing of metal parts by the application of pressure and passing current through the part area required time to be joined. Copper based alloys are used to manufacture resistance welding electrodes.
Spot or resistance welding offers a cost effective solution because filler materials are not used and mostly used for a wide range of automotive, aerospace and industrial applications.
Types of Resistance welding
Several types of resistance welding techniques are available according to types and shapes of welding electrodes.
- Spot Welding
- Seam Welding
- Projection Welding
- Flash Welding
- Upset welding
Advantages of Resistance Welding
Resistance welding has the following advantages.
- Low Processing cost because filler material is not required.
- Process is easy and simple to implement.
- Dissimilar materials can be welded.
Limitation of Resistance Welding
Resistance welding has the following limitations.
- Comparatively low welding strength.
- Aesthetics are not good near the weld area.
Solid State Welding (SSD)
In solid State welding base materials are fused and joined by the application of pressure and vibration or motion only. For example, ultrasonic welding utilizes pressure and high frequency vibrations to join two plastic parts.
Types of Solid State Welding Techniques
Following types of solid state welding techniques are used to join metal and plastic parts.
- Ultrasonic Welding
- Friction Welding
- Forge Welding
- Cold Welding
- Explosive Welding
- Diffusion welding
Advantages of Solid State Welding
Solid-state welding has the following advantages:
- Dis-Similar materials can be joined.
- Thermoplastic can also be welded.
- Weld joints are free from microstructure defects.
- Welded joints have mechanical properties similar to base material.
- Low operational cost because filler material is not required.
Limitations of Solid State Welding
Solid-state welding has the following limitations:
- Initial process setup is difficult.
- Automation is difficult to implement.
- Surface preparation is required.
Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
Electron-beam welding is a type of fusion welding utilizing a beam of high-velocity electrons that are applied to the materials to be joined. As a result of the kinetic energy of electrons, base material melts and flows together to create a joint.
Advantages of Electron Beam Welding
Electron Beam welding has the following advantages:
- Weld strength up to 95% is achievable.
- Vacuum environment eliminates impurities.
- Precise control and repeatability.
Disadvantages of Electron Beam Welding
Electron Beam Welding has the following limitations:
- EBW requires vacuum conditions to prevent dissipation of the electron beam.
- Automation is difficult to implement.
- Materials with high vapour pressure like Zinc, Magnesium and Non-metal can not be welded.
Laser Beam Welding
Laser Beam Welding is a type of fusion welding that utilizes a high power density (1 MW/cm²) laser beam to melt and join metal or thermoplastic parts. In this Laser Spot Size can vary from 0.2 mm to 13 mm.
The laser beam welding process is widely used in the automotive industry where large volume production is required.
Advantages of Laser Beam Welding
laser beam welding process has the following advantages compared to other welding processes.
- High quality welds.
- Wide variety of materials (thermoplastics and metals) can be welded.
- Narrow and deep welds are possible.
- Used for high volume applications because of high welding rate.
- Automation is easy to implement.
- Consumable electrodes are not required.
- Very small spot size up to 0.2 mm is feasible.
Limitations of Laser Beam Welding
Laser beam welding process has following limitations.
- High initial equipment and maintenance cost.
- Sometimes cracking is a concern due to high cooling rate.
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